Report (laporan hasil pengamatan)
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya, ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama.
Siswa dapat mencoba membuat teks laporan tentang, misalnya, rumah sangat sederhana, warung tegal, sekolah, rumah sakit dsb. dengan mendekripsikan ciri-ciri subyek tersebut sehingga disebut rumah sederhana, dsb.
(b) Struktur Teks:
- Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya.(General Clasification)
- Deskripsi lanjutan dari General Classification (Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors).
The heart is the most important part of the body. It is the center of life. However, the heart is only as big as a closed hand. ( General Classification)
The heart is a muscle and it beats about seventy times per minute throughthout a person’s life. (Description)
The heart pumps blood from your heart to all parts of your body. The heart is made up of four chambers or small “rooms”. The top chamber are called the right and left auriclesand the botttom chambers are the right and left ventricles. (Description)
When blood enters the heart. It is in dark reddish color because it countains carbon dioxide. The blood enters the right auricle and then the right ventricle. When the heart contracts, it forces the blood to the lungs where the blood receives oxygen. It then goes to the left auricle. The heart contracts again, and the blood goes to the left ventricle and is then forced out into the body. The blood gathers carbon dioxide and returns to the heart, and the process begins again. (Description)
Plants are living beings. They need food, water and air for survival. (General Classification)
Plants derive their food from the earth and the air. If you look at their roots, you will find that ends of these roots are like fine fibers. We call them root-hairs. They absorb water and minerals, then transport them upwards to the leaves through the trunk and the branches. It is the leaves which prepare the food. (Description)
The green material, chlorophyll, prepares the food like a machine. It converts the carbon dioxide taken from the air and water from the ground into sugar with the help of sunlight. This chemical reaction is called photosynthes. In fact, the chlorophyll takes energy from the sunlight and uses it to synthesize the hydrogen from water and carbon from carbon dioxide for making sugar. This reaction also gives out oxygen and water which are excreted by the leaves. (Description)
Australia is a large continent. It has six states and two territories.
The capital city of Australia is Canberra. It is in the Australian Capital Territory.
The The population of Australia is about 20 million. The first inhabitants to live in Australia were Aboriginal people. After that people came from all over the world. The main language is English, however many other languages are spoken.
There are many plants and animals that are only found in Australia, e.g. kangaroos, platypuses, gum trees and Waratahs.
The main products and industries are wool, minerals, oil, coal, cereals and meat.
Some famous landmarks are the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and Uluru (Ayers Rock).
Sumber : http://kbs.jogja.go.id/